Monday, June 28, 2010

Posted by azim On Monday, June 28, 2010 31 comments

Mikrob orale...

Dengan harapan tidak bercampur antara pato n mikrob,
sile post soalan Mikrob kat sini ek...

semoga ALLAH memberkati usaha kalian...

Dgn segala hormatnye ni soalan yg sy dapat...

1) type of sensitivity
2)food poisoning
3) salmonella n widal test & typhoid fewer.


Posted by azim On Monday, June 28, 2010 23 comments

Phatologi Orale

Alhamdulillah, Alhamdulillah atas nikmat yg diberikan oleh ALLAH swt kt dapat njawab soalan oral mikrob n patho( certain orang ).

so jom kongsi soalan2 oral pato tuk sahabat2 yg belum xam pato..
semoga ALLAH menolong hambaNYA yg menolong hambaNYA.

ni soalan oral(PATO) yg fathiyyah bg kat YG...


Dear friends, just want to share the questions that i got from Dr Mohammad Isa

i was asked about

1. Types of acute inflammation and their examples

* - Suppurative acute inflammation (Localized) -> Abscess, Furuncle, carbuncle

(Diffuse) - > Acute suppurative appendicitis, cellulitis

-Non Suppurative acute inflammation
-> Pseudomembranous inflammation
->Exudative inflammation (fibrinous, serous, serofibrinous inflammation)
->Hemorrhagic inflammation
->necrotizing inflammation
->Allergic inflammation

example for pseudomembranous inflammation
- Diphteria

what's the causes of the diphteria
- C. diphteriae

What are the complications of Diphteria that will cause death
-Asphyxia : caused by edema, membrane n laryngeal spasm
- Acute toxaemia that will cause acute heart failure n toxic myocarditis
-Zenkers degeneration
Temporary paralysis of muscle of palate, pharynx larynx eye, face

example for serofibrinous inflammation
- pleural, pericardial effusion

example for fibrinous inflammation
- lobar pneumonia

what are the complications for lobar pneumonia
-failure for resolution( carnification- fibrosis -> pulmonary hypertension, chronic RHF)
-Spread (direct, blood)
-toxaemia on 9th day
-post pneumonic lung abscess n gangrene

tQ atas perkongsian...

Saturday, June 26, 2010

Posted by c's On Saturday, June 26, 2010 49 comments

Pharmacology oral


Alhamdulillah, Alhamdulillah kita sudah selesai peperiksaan Pharmacology. Di sini kita memohon kesudian sahabat-sahabat untuk kumpul soalan memandangkan sahabat-sahabat kita yang G2G masih belum melalui peperiksaan oral Pharmacology.

Secara asas, dan random observation saya secara peribadi, hanya pola ini yang saya nampak
Seorang profesor akan tanya buku 1
Seorang lagi akan tanya buku 2
Masuk secara berdua/bertiga dan ada juga berempat.

Sediakan chemistry untuk saling membantu ya!

Jom nyatakan soalan kita!


Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Posted by c's On Wednesday, June 23, 2010 9 comments

[scary movie] A Boy Without Teeth

Salamullahi alaikum w.b.t

My 1st intention is to mislead the issue which overwhelming us before.
2nd I want to us to seek for things which are really concern us as a medical doctor.

It's kind of copy paste. I promise just once for today


For those who are unfamiliar with medical terms, there are medical term in this post which I'll simply explain just for the benefit of understanding.The story will not be understood without knowing the terms.

First the physical therapy, it is a therapy of muscles and joints done by the physical therapist to restore weak, or atrofied muscles to their healthy state by using massaging, heat and by electical stimuli methods.

The second term is Myositis ossificans, is a pathological calcification of healty muscle and hardened it limiting muscle or joint movement.Also in worse case scenario the muscle affected  will become bone-like.

Fuhh, many to explain right? i'll continue with the story...,the title is..,

Boy without teeth!

A worried mother and his son came to Dr Ali el-deeb clinic, a specialist in rheumatology and an assistant professor at the Tanta University Hospital (TUH).

The boy is wearing a splint on his right elbow, he recently suffers from a trauma that cause  a fracture on his upper one third radial bone.

The fracture is Alhamdulillah cured, but the mother's complaint is that her son can not move his right arm, due to stiffness on his elbow joint.

It's normal for any joint to has this kind of affect after being cast by plaster of paris (pop), due to the stagnant synovial fluid and bla..bla..bla..(no time to explain..maybe another time)

After assessment Dr Ali noticed that all of the boy's front teeth were missing.So he ask the mother is it due to the accident.Shockingly the loss of teeth had nothing to do with the accident.

Want to know???

It's horrifying, even to Dr Ali! the child was undergoes a physical therapy for his stiff joint, and the most important therapy is the joint stretching which is flexion and extension of the affected elbow joint.

The therapists was doing it without doing a routine x-ray, a simple investigation.They stretch the joint without knowing that the boy has myositis ossificans of brachialis muscle!!.

His muscle had completely turn into bone, can you imagine when someone try to break your bone!.Scream! that is the word, but in this case the boy kept on screaming but the therapists said it is normal (they don't know about the calcified muscle).

The boy kept on screaming and bite his teeth together to ease the pain, sadly they kept on stretching his arm till the calcified muscle broke!.The boy can not stand the pain any longer and bite his front teeth.All the teeth broke due to the straining and the agonizing pain.

There is blood all over his face and after seeing that they stop the stretch.

The mother and the therapist were confused, they do not know what had happened.

Thus the mother became angry and they leaved the therapist out of the blue.A day after,  she visited Dr Ali's clinic and Dr Ali explains the condition of the poor child after confirming it with a simple elbow joint x-ray.

His calcified brachialis muscle was broken, so the choice of treatment is surgery and his arm will not able to move like before due to iatrogenic or his previous doctor silly, stupid yet fatal mistake.Don't forget that his front teeth are all gone too!.

scary~~~~~~..., doesn't it??

this story makes me want to study! i hope it goes for you guys too~ XD


Source :
Abang Syafiq, Tahun 5 Perubatan Tanta


Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Posted by azim On Tuesday, June 22, 2010 6 comments

air (water)

For anyone trying to lose weight, this question is an exciting one!
If you simply want to know if your body burns calories warming up the water,
the answer is yes.But if you want to know if drinking a lot of ice water can help you lose weight, or keep weight off, this "yes" needs to be qualified with some calculations.

First of all, calories are case-sensitive. There are calories and then there are Calories. Calories with a big "c" are the ones used to describe the amount of energy contained in foods. A calorie with a little "c" is defined as the amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
What most people think of as a Calorie is actually a kilo-calorie: It takes one Calorie to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. So when you drink a 140-Calorie can of cola (boikot) , you are ingesting 140,000 calories.
There is no cause for alarm, because the conversion applies across the board. When you burn 100 Calories jogging a mile, you are burning 100,000 calories.

So, considering that the definition of a calorie is based on raising the temperature of water, it is
safe to say that your body burns calories when it has to raise the temperature of ice water to your body temperature. And unless your urine is coming out ice cold, your body must be raising the temperature of the water. So calories are being burned.
Let's figure out exactly what you're burning when you drink a 16-ounce (0.5 liter) glass of ice water:
* The temperature of ice water can be estimated at zero degrees Celsius.
* Body temperature can be estimated at 37 degrees Celsius.
* It takes 1 calorie to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
* There are 473.18 grams in 16 fluid ounces of water.So in the case of a 16-ounce glass of ice water, your body must raise the temperature of 473.18 grams of water from zero to 37 degrees C.
In doing so, your body burns 17,508 calories. But that's calories with a little "c."
Your body only burns 17.5 Calories, and in the grand scheme of a 2,000-Calorie diet,
that 17.5 isn't very significant.
But let's say you adhere to the "eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day" nutritional recommendation. In 64 ounces of water, there are 1,892.72 grams.
So to warm up all that water in the course of a day, your body burns 70,030 calories, or 70 Calories. And over time, that 70 Calories a day adds up.

So, while you definitely shouldn't depend on ice water consumption to replace exercise or a healthy diet, drinking cold water instead of warm water does, in fact, burn some extra Calories!
dikopi here

some tips...

Correct timing to take water, will maximize its effectiveness to Human body.

Two (02) glasses of water - After waking up - Helps activate internal organs
One (01) glass of water - 30 minutes before meal - Help digestion

One (01) glass of water - Before taking a bath - Helps lower blood pressure
One (01) glass of water - Before sleep - To avoid stroke or heart attack

Dah lame xminum air sejuk T___T

some exam jokes

LOVE: lots of thoughts in mind but no guts to express
EXAMS: lots of guts to express but no thoughts in mind

so mixed together then u will succsess...

abaikan pernyataan diatas..

sebenarnya Love(keimanan,rasa cinta kpd ALLAH) dan Exam(ujian)
adalah berkait rapat dan tidak boleh berpisah...

“Apakah manusia itu mengira bahawa mereka dibiarkan saja mengatakan;
“Kami telah beriman,” sedangkan mereka tidak diuji? Dan sesungguhnya
kami telah menguji orang-orang yang sebelum mereka, maka sesungguhnya Allah
mengetahui orang-orang yang benar dan sesungguhnya Dia mengetahui orang-orang yang dusta.”
(Surah Al-Ankabut,29:2-3)

so Love and Xam xdapat dipisahkan...
xnk ulas panjang2, akhowat ulas lg best...


Thursday, June 10, 2010

Posted by c's On Thursday, June 10, 2010 7 comments


Melihat, memerhati, memandang.. itu yang kita lakukan setiap hari. Moga-moga yang terbaik adalah kita memandang sesuatu perkara itu dengan pandangan hati. Ainul basirah.

Pandangan mata selalu menipu, Pandangan akal selalu tersasar, pandangan nafsu selalu melulu, pandangan hati itulah yang hakiki. Jika hati itu BERSIH.

Banyak perkara tersirat di dunia ini, yang bukan hanya sekadar dipandang sambil lewa.. tidak cukup.. Tapi, pandanglah dengan mata hati yang tajam.

Moga-moga itulah yang membawa kita berfikir tentang hakikat hidup ini. Membawa kita lebih hampir kepada pencipta yang ESA.

Di sana ada seorang tua meminta sedekah. Tangan terketar-ketar, minta dibantu. Dan teruskan perjalananmu, pasti di sana sini, situasi serupa.

Apa bezanya kita dan mereka??

Beza yang amat ketara ialah USIA.

KIta masih muda. Tubuh badan masih kuat. Ingatan masih segar.

Tapi tidak bagi mereka.

Dengan segalanya yang masih sihat, tak sangka kita masih mudah melatah. Kadang kala bosan, kadang kala penat .Seringkali berbagai rungutan yang terdengar.(suara hati)

Apatah lagi dalam fatrah peperiksaan ini, membaca adalah aktiviti utama.Membaca, sesekali menyelak-nyelak helaian yang lain pula( menghitung berapa lagi agaknya perlu dibaca).

Oh..banyak lagi.. rungsing. Tertekan. Akhirnya fikiran melayang.

‘Cepatlah berakhir tempoh peperiksaan yang penuh dugaan dan cabaran ini. Malaysia sudah melambai-lambai. Keluarga sedang menunggu kepulangan.’ Harapan yang terpendam berlegar-legar di fikiran.

Tidak, jangan begitu. Mengharapkan masa berlalu adalah sama dengan mengharapkan umur kita seiring pergi bersamanya.

Rugi. Sedangkan masa peranannya adalah sebagai modal dalam hidup ini.

Cuba alihkan persepsi kita pada sudut berbeza.

Pasti di sana, kita melihat kebesaran-Nya.

Membaca, memahami dan menghafal. Cukup, ilmu medic sahaja tercungap-cungap kita menggapainya. Tetapi ini hanya sebahagian.

Dia mengetahui apa yang di hadapan mereka dan apa yang di belakang mereka.dan mereka tidak mengetahui sesuatu pun tentang ilmu-Nya melainkan apa yang Dia kehendaki.(Al-Baqarah:255)

Dan tidaklah Kami berikan kamu ilmu melainkan sedikit. (Al-Isra’:85)

Sedangkan ilmu Allah itu amat luas.

Tolong hulurkan pena..

Dan seandainya, pohon-pohon di bumi menjadi pena dan lautan (menjadi tinta), ditambah kepadanya tujuh lautan (lagi) setelah keringnya, niscaya tidak akan habis-habis dituliskan kalimat Allah. Sesungguhnya Allah Maha Perkasa dan Bijaksana. (Luqman:27)

Dan dakwatnya pula..

Katakanlah (Muhammmad), seandainya lautan menjadi tinta untuk menulis kalimat Tuhanku, maka pasti habislah lautan itu sebelum selesai (penulisan) kalimat-kalimat Tuhanku, meskipun kami datangkan tambahan sebanyak itu pula.(Kahfi:109)

TAWADUK ,perlu ada pada setiap penunutut ilmu. Hakikat bahawa sedikitnya ilmu yang ada pada manusia.

Bersabar dan gigihlah menuntut ilmu-ilmu Allah. Cuba memerhati dan menelitinya agar akhirnya ilmu itu membawa kita kembali kepada pemilik segala ilmu.

Biarlah ilmu yang bertambah sehari demi sehari ini selari dengan bertambahnya khasyatullah dalam diri.

Di antara hamba-hamba Allah yang takut kepada-Nya, hanyalah para ulama.(Fatir:35) *orang-orang yang mengetahui ilmu kebesaran dan kekuasaan Allah.

Moga kita sedar dengan usia yang kita ada. Dan PASTI, PASTI suatu hari nanti kita akan merasai zaman di mana mereka berada sekarang . ( Jika nyawa masih dikandung badan)

Dan ketika itu, pergerakan terbatas, ingatan berkurang..

Dan begitu pula, Allah telah berfirman;

Dan barangsiapa yang dipanjangkan umurnya, nescaya Kami kembalikan dia kepada awal kejadiannya. Maka mengapa mereka tidak mengerti ?(Yasin:68)*
Kembali menjadi lemah dan kurang akal seperti anak kecil.

Maka,usia muda yang amat berharga ini, biarlah ia merupakan satu peluang dan kesempatan yang dapat digunakan sebaik-baiknya. Serlahkan POTENSI dalam diri. Jangan mudah menyerah kalah.

Kerana apa yang diharapkan, usia muda ini bermanfaat sebagaimana pemuda-pemuda yang Allah ceritakan dalam kitab-Nya..” INNAHUM FITYATUN AMANU..”

Sesungguhnya mereka adalah pemuda-pemuda yang beriman kepada Tuhan mereka,dan Kami tambahkan petunjuk kepada mereka.(Al-Kahfi:13).

La haulawala quwwata illa billah,
Amira Najihah binti Armain.